are privately negotiated in the over−the−counter ("OTC") market and may be centrally cleared through a registered commodities exchange ("centrally cleared swaps").
We estimate the fair value of our centrally cleared interest rate swaps using the daily settlement price determined by the respective exchange. Centrally cleared swaps are valued by the exchange using a pricing model that references the underlying rates including the overnight index swap rate and LIBOR forward rate to produce the daily settlement price.
We estimate the fair value of our "non-centrally cleared" swaps using a combination of inputs from counterparty and third-party pricing models to estimate the net present value of the future cash flows using the forward interest rate yield curve in effect as of the end of the measurement period. We also incorporate both our own and our counterparties' nonperformance risk in estimating the fair value of our interest rate swaps. In considering the effect of nonperformance risk, we consider the impact of netting and credit enhancements, such as collateral postings and guarantees, and have concluded that our own and our counterparty risk is not significant to the overall valuation of these agreements.
Interest rate swaptions
We purchase interest rate swaptions to help mitigate the potential impact of larger changes in interest rates on the performance of our investment portfolio (referred to as "convexity risk"). Interest rate swaptions provide us the option to enter into an interest rate swap agreement for a predetermined notional amount, stated term and pay and receive interest rates in the future. Our swaption agreements typically provide us the option to enter into a pay fixed rate interest rate swap, which we refer as "payer swaptions." We may also enter into swaption agreements that provide us the option to enter into a receive fixed interest rate swap, which we refer to as "receiver swaptions." The premium paid for interest rate swaptions is reported as an asset in our consolidated balance sheets. The premium is valued at an amount equal to the fair value of the swaption that would have the effect of closing the position adjusted for nonperformance risk, if any. The difference between the premium and the fair value of the swaption is reported in gain (loss) on derivative instruments and other securities, net in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income. If a swaption expires unexercised, the realized loss on the swaption would be equal to the premium paid. If we sell or exercise a swaption, the realized gain or loss on the swaption would be equal to the difference between the cash or the fair value of the underlying interest rate swap received and the premium paid.
Our interest rate swaption agreements are privately negotiated in the OTC market and are not subject to central clearing. We estimate the fair value of interest rate swaptions using a combination of inputs from counterparty and third-party pricing models based on the fair value of the future interest rate swap that we have the option to enter into as well as the remaining length of time that we have to exercise the option, adjusted for non-performance risk, if any.
A TBA security is a forward contract for the purchase ("long position") or sale ("short position") of agency MBS at a predetermined price, face amount, issuer, coupon and stated maturity on an agreed-upon future date. The specific agency MBS delivered into the contract upon the settlement date, published each month by the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association, are not known at the time of the transaction. We may enter into TBA contracts as a means of hedging against short-term changes in interest rates. We may also enter into TBA contracts as a means of acquiring or disposing of agency securities and we may from time to time utilize TBA dollar roll transactions to finance agency MBS purchases.
We account for TBA contracts as derivative instruments since either the TBA contracts do not settle in the shortest period of time possible or we cannot assert that it is probable at inception and throughout the term of the TBA contract that we will take physical delivery of the agency security upon settlement of the contract. We account for TBA dollar roll transactions as a series of derivative transactions. Gains, losses and dollar roll income associated with our TBA contracts and dollar roll transactions are recognized in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income in gain (loss) on derivative instruments and other securities, net.
We estimate the fair value of TBA securities based on similar methods used to value our agency MBS securities.
U.S. Treasury securities
We purchase or sell short U.S. Treasury securities and U.S. Treasury futures contracts to help mitigate the potential impact of changes in interest rates on the performance of our portfolio. We borrow securities to cover short sales of U.S. Treasury securities under reverse repurchase agreements. We account for these as securities borrowing transactions and recognize an obligation to return the borrowed securities at fair value on the balance sheet based on the value of the underlying borrowed securities as of the reporting date. Gains and losses associated with purchases and short sales of U.S. Treasury securities and U.S. Treasury futures contracts are recognized in gain (loss) on derivative instruments and other securities, net in our consolidated statements of comprehensive income.