is not determined until we engage in a repurchase transaction under these agreements. Our fixed-rate collateral generally may be more susceptible to margin calls as increases in interest rates tend to affect more negatively the market value of fixed-rate securities. In addition, some collateral may be more illiquid than other instruments in which we invest, which could cause them to be more susceptible to margin calls in a volatile market environment. Moreover, collateral that prepays more quickly increases the frequency and magnitude of potential margin calls as there is a significant time lag between when the prepayment is reported (which reduces the market value of the security) and when the principal payment is actually received. If we are unable to satisfy margin calls, our lenders may foreclose on our collateral. The threat of or occurrence of a margin call could force us to sell, either directly or through a foreclosure, our collateral under adverse market conditions. Because of the leverage we expect to have, we may incur substantial losses upon the threat or occurrence of a margin call.
Our derivative agreements expose us to margin calls that could result in defaults or force us to sell assets under adverse market conditions.
Our derivative agreements typically require that we pledge collateral on such agreements to our counterparties in a similar manner as we are required to under our repurchase agreements. Our counterparties, or the clearing agency in the case of centrally cleared interest rate swaps, typically have the sole discretion to determine the value of the derivative instruments and the value of the collateral securing such instruments. In the event of a margin call, we must generally provide additional collateral on the same business day.
Furthermore, our derivative agreements may also contain cross default provisions under which a default under certain of our other indebtedness in excess of a certain threshold amount causes an event of default under the agreement. Following an event of default, we could be required to settle our obligations under the agreements at their termination values.
The threat of or occurrence of margin calls or the forced settlement of our obligations under our derivative agreements at their termination values could force us to sell, either directly or through a foreclosure, our investments under adverse market conditions. Because of the leverage we have, we may incur substantial losses upon the threat or occurrence of either of these events.
Increasingly restrictive rules and regulations adopted by the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission and regulators of other countries impose increased margin requirements and require additional operational and compliance costs, which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act and the rules and regulations adopted and to be adopted by the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (the "CFTC") introduce a comprehensive regulatory regime for swaps (as defined in the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended). The new laws and regulations subject certain swaps to clearing and exchange trading requirements, and subject us to new burdens, including but not limited to, margin requirements, reporting, record keeping and business conduct rules. The final rules under Title VII, including those rules that have already been adopted, for both cleared and non-cleared swap transactions impose increased margin requirements and require additional operational and compliance costs that will likely affect our business and results of operations.
As we also enter into derivative agreements with non-U.S. counterparties, which are subject to increasingly restrictive local regulations similar to the Dodd-Frank Act, we are required to follow some of these local regulations or help the non-U.S. counterparties comply with these local regulations. For example, the EU's Regulation on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories (the "EMIR Regulation") came into force on August 16, 2012 and was implemented in the course of 2013 through a number of implementation measures. The EMIR Regulation has not yet been fully implemented. The EMIR Regulation is intended, among other things, to reduce counterparty risk by requiring that all standardized over-the-counter derivatives meeting specific thresholds be cleared through a central counterparty. In addition, OTC derivatives that are not centrally cleared will be subject to margin requirements. It is possible that EMIR Regulation will result in increased costs for OTC derivative counterparties and also lead to an increase in the costs of collateral. These increased trading costs and collateral costs may have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
As the CFTC and regulators of other countries continue to promulgate new rules and regulations on derivatives, our derivative agreements and ability to engage in derivative transactions with certain counterparties may be adversely affected, which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
It may be uneconomical to "roll" our TBA dollar roll transactions or we may be unable to meet margin calls on our TBA contracts, which could negatively affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may utilize TBA dollar roll transactions as a means of investing in and financing agency mortgage-backed securities. TBA contracts enable us to purchase or sell, for future delivery, agency securities with certain principal and interest terms and certain types of collateral, but the particular agency securities to be delivered are not identified until shortly before the TBA